services

This article assumes a knowledge of services, their rates and related concepts as documented in Services in Exivity and in the article on the service statement

Overview

The services statement is used to create or modify multiple services based on the data in a daily RDF.

Syntax

services{ param1 = value [ ... paramN = value] }

Example:

services {
usages_col = ServiceName
effective_date = 20160101
set_cogs_using = cogs_prices
#set_fixed_cogs_using = cogs_prices
description_col = service_description
unit_label_col = units_description
set_min_commit_using = minimum_commit
category_col = service_group
interval_col = charging_interval
model_col = proration
charge_model_col = charge_model
set_rate_using = rate
set_fixed_price_using = fixed_prices
}

Parameters may be specified in any order. The '=' between parameters and their values is optional and may be omitted, but if present it must be surrounded by white-space

Details

Summary

The services statement is used to create or modify multiple services from the data in a daily RDF. The parameters supplied to the statement map columns in the usage data to attributes of the created services.

How column names are used

For many of the parameters to the services statement there are two ways of using a column name:

  1. The values in the column are extracted from the usage data and those values are embedded as literals into the service definition.

  2. The column name itself is used in the service definition such that the reporting engine dynamically determines the values to use for any given day when generating report data

When creating or updating services using the first method, Transcript will create a new rate revision every time the rate information changes. For data sources such as Microsoft Azure where the rates can change daily this will result in a lot of rate revisions in the global database.

Using the second method requires only a single rate revision which identifies by name the column(s) containing rate and/or COGS information. When a report is run, the charge engine then obtains the correct rate information for any given day from the data in those named columns.

Parameter table

The parameters supported by the services statement are summarised in the following table. The Type column in the table indicates the way the column name is used as described in How column names are used above. Additional information about each parameter can be found below the summary table itself.

Parameter

Type

Meaning

usages_col

2

The name of the column from which units of consumption are derived

service_type

n/a

Determines how the usages_col and consumption_col values are used when interrogating the usage data to get the units of consumption

consumption_col

2

The name of the column containing units of consumption (AUTOMATIC services only - see below for more details)

instance_col

2

Values in this column are used to distinguish between service instances

description_col

1

Values in this column determine the service description for each service definition

category or group

n/a

A specific category string to use for all service definitions

category_col or group_col

1

Values in this column determine the service category for each service definition

interval

n/a

A specific charging interval to use for all service defintions

interval_col

1

Values in this column determine the charging interval for each service definition

model

n/a

A specific proration setting to use for all service definitions

model_col

1

Values in this column determine the proration setting for each service definition

charge_model

n/a

A specific charge model to use for all service definitions (may be peak , average, last_day or day_xxx, where xxx is number in range 1-28)

charge_model_col

1

Values in this column determine the charge_model for each service definition

unit_label

n/a

A specific unit label to use for all service definitions

unit_label_col

1

Values in this column determine the unit label for each service definition

rate_col

2

Set the column name from which Edify will determine rate per unit at report time

set_rate_using

1

Values in this column determine the rate per unit for each service definition

fixed_price_col

2

Set the column name from which Edify will determine the fixed price per charging interval for each service definition

set_fixed_price_using

1

Values in this column determine the fixed_price per charging interval for each service definition

cogs_col

2

Set the column name from which Edify will determine the COGS rate per unit for each service definition

set_cogs_using

1

Values in this column determine the COGS rate per unit for each service definition

fixed_cogs_col

2

Set the column name from which Edify will determine the fixed COGS price per charging interval for each service defnition

set_fixed_cogs_using

1

Values in this column determine the fixed COGS price per charging interval for each service definition

set_min_commit_using

1

Values in this column determine the minimum commit for each service definition

effective_date_col

1

Values in this column determine the effective date of the rate revision created for each service definition

effective_date

n/a

A specific effective date to use in the rate revision created for each service definition

Parameter details

usages_col

The usages_col parameter is the name of a column containing service keys. A service will be created for each distinct value in this column, and these values will be used as the service keys.

service_type

In order to calculate the charges associated with a service it is necessary to know the number of units of that service that were consumed. Exivity supports two methods of retrieving the units of consumption from usage data and the service_type determines which of these is applied.

Any given service may use one or other of these methods, which are as follows:

  • Manual services: service_type = MANUAL

  • Automatic services: service_type = AUTOMATIC

Manual services

Manual services require that the units of consumption for each service named in the usages_col column are stored in separate columns whose names correlate to the service keys themselves.

To illustrate this, consider the following fragment of usage data:

service_name,Small VM,Large VM
Small VM,1,0
Small VM,4,0
Large VM,0,6
Large VM,0,4

In this case, the service_name column contains a list of service keys and for each of those service keys there is a corresponding column containing the units of consumption for that service. Thus in the above example we can see that there are two services, "Small VM" and "Large VM" and that the units of consumption for each of these services are in the columns of the same name.

The more manual services that are represented in the data, the more columns are required.

Automatic services

Automatic services require that the units of consumption for each service named in the usages_col column are stored in the column named by the consumption_col paramater. To represent the same information as that shown in the example above, the following would be used:

service_name,quantity
Small VM,1
Small VM,4
Large VM,6
Large VM,4

It can be seen that any number of automatic services, along with their consumption figures, can be represented using only two columns of data.

consumption_col

The consumption_col parameter is only required when creating automatic services and determines the column containing the units of consumption for each service as described above.

instance_col

It is not enough to know only the units of consumption for each service, as this merely provides the total consumption for each service across the entire usage. In the examples above, for example, the "Large VM" service has 10 units of consumption but using that information alone there is no way to know if this represents one instance of a VM used 10 times, 10 instances of VMs used once each, or something in between.

The instance_col parameter is therefore required to tell the difference. Typically this will be a unique identifier which groups the units of consumption into 'buckets'. In the case of a VM this may be a VM ID which remains constant throughout the life of a VM in the cloud.

To illustrate this, we can supplement the example usage fragment used previously with additional information to use as the instance_col as follows:

vmid,service_name,quantity
444,Small VM,1
444,Small VM,4
555,Large VM,6
666,Large VM,4

By specifying instance_col = vmid we can now see that the usage represents:

  • 5 instances of a single Small VM with an ID of 444

  • 6 instances of a Large VM with an ID of 555

  • 4 instances of a Large VM with an ID of 666

description_col

If specified, the description_col denotes a column containing a friendly description for reports to identify the service with.

Typically in cloud usage data, services are identified using unique IDs (referred to as keys in Exivity) which are often non-meaningful to human eyes, so Exivity supports a 'friendly' description for each service for display purposes when generating a report.

For example description_col = description may be used in conjunction with the following data to map the service_id to a friendly name:

vmid,service_id,quantity,description
444,ABC123,1,Small VM
444,ABC123,4,Small VM
555,DEF789,6,Large VM
666,DEF789,4,Large VM

It is not mandatory to provide a description_col parameter, but if one is not supplied then the description will be set to a duplicate of the service key (as derived via the usages_col parameter).

In the example above, it can be seen that there are multiple rows in the data for the same service key (vmid). When using description_col, the first row for each distinct value in the usages_col will be used to set the description.

category

By default Exivity will group services on reports according to their category. Using categories ensures that charges for services that fall within the same category wil appear in a contiguous block.

The category parameter specifies the category to which all services created will be assigned, thus specifying category = "Virtual Machines" might be appropriate for the example data used so far in this article.

If no category is specified, the services created will be assigned to a category called Default.

category_col

Usage data normally contains information about a range of services of different types such as Virtual Machines, Storage, Networking and so on. By referencing a column in the usage data which identifies the correct category for each service, multiple categories will be created and each service assigned to the correct category by the services statement.

To illustrate this, let us extend the sample data as follows:

instance_id,service_name,quantity,description,category
444,Small VM,1,Bronze Computing Service,Virtual Machines
444,Small VM,4,Bronze Computing Service,Virtual Machines
555,Large VM,6,Gold Computing Service,Virtual Machines
666,Large VM,4,Gold Computing Service,Vortual Machines
999,SSD Storage,50,Fast Storage,Storage

By specifying category_col = category each service will now be associated with the correct category.

interval

The interval parameter is used to specify a literal interval for all the services created by the services statement.

The interval parameter may be any of:

  • individually

  • daily

  • monthly

If the interval parameter is not specified, then a default interval of monthly will be used.

interval_col

In the event that different services in the usages_col require different charge intervals, a column name containing the interval to use may be specified using the interval_col column as follows:

instance_id,service_name,quantity,description,category,interval
444,Small VM,1,Bronze Computing Service,Virtual Machines,monthly
444,Small VM,4,Bronze Computing Service,Virtual Machines,monthly
555,Large VM,6,Gold Computing Service,Virtual Machines,monthly
666,Large VM,4,Gold Computing Service,Vortual Machines,monthly
999,SSD Storage,50,Fast Storage,Storage,daily

By specifying interval_col = interval each service in the above usage data will be assigned the correct charge interval.

model

The model parameter is used to enable proration for monthly services. Either of unprorated or prorated may be specified.

If no model is specified, then a value of unprorated will be used by default.

model_col

In the event that different services in the consumptions_col require different proration settings, the model_col parameter can be used to specify which column contains the proration setting for each service.

instance_id,service_name,quantity,description,category,interval,model
444,Small VM,1,Bronze Computing Service,Virtual Machines,monthly,prorated
444,Small VM,4,Bronze Computing Service,Virtual Machines,monthly,prorated
555,Large VM,6,Gold Computing Service,Virtual Machines,monthly,prorated
666,Large VM,4,Gold Computing Service,Vortual Machines,monthly,prorated
999,SSD Storage,50,Fast Storage,Storage,daily,unprorated

By specifying model_col = model, each service in the above usage data will be assigned the correct proration model.

charge_model

If specified as peak then the charge for any monthly services created will be calculated based on the day with the highest charge in the month.

If specified as average then the charge for any monthly services created will be calculated as the average unit price (for days that have usage only) multiplied by the average quantity (days with no usage will be treated as if they had a quantity of 0).

If specified as last_day then the charge for any monthly services created will be calculated based on the last day of the month.

If specified as day_xxx (where xxx is a number in 1-28 range) then the charge for any monthly services created will be calculated based on the specified day of the month.

charge_model_col

In the event that different services in the consumptions_col require different charge models, the charge_model_col parameter can be used to specify which column contains the charge_model setting for each service. For the example data below charge_model_col would be set to chargetype:

instance_id,service_name,quantity,description,category,interval,model,chargetype
444,Small VM,1,Bronze Computing Service,Virtual Machines,monthly,prorated,average
444,Small VM,4,Bronze Computing Service,Virtual Machines,monthly,prorated,average
555,Large VM,6,Gold Computing Service,Virtual Machines,monthly,prorated,peak
666,Large VM,4,Gold Computing Service,Vortual Machines,monthly,prorated,peak
999,SSD Storage,50,Fast Storage,Storage,daily,unprorated,peak

unit_label

The unit_label parameter is used by reports to provide a meaningful description of the units of consumption associated with a service. A virtual machine may have a unit label of Virtual Machines, but storage-related services may have a unit label of Gb for example.

If the unit_label parameter is not specified then a default lavel of Units will be used.

The unit label may be up to 63 characters in length. Longer values will be truncated.

unit_label_col

In cases where the services contained in the usages_col column collectively require more than one unit label, the unit_label_col parameter can be used to identify a column in the usage data which contains an appropriate label for each service.

For example unit_label_col = label can be used to associate an appropriate label using the data below:

instance_id,service_name,quantity,description,category,interval,model,label
444,Small VM,1,Bronze Computing Service,Virtual Machines,monthly,prorated,Virtual Machines
444,Small VM,4,Bronze Computing Service,Virtual Machines,monthly,prorated,Virtual Machines
555,Large VM,6,Gold Computing Service,Virtual Machines,monthly,prorated, Virtual Machines
666,Large VM,4,Gold Computing Service,Vortual Machines,monthly,prorated, Virtual Machines
999,SSD Storage,50,Fast Storage,Storage,daily,unprorated,Gb

The parameters rate_col, set_rate_using, fixed_price_col, set_fixed_price_using, cogs_col, set_cogs_using, fixed_cogs and fixed_cogs_using (all of which are detailed below) collectively determine the types of charge that will be associated with the service definitions created by the services statement.

A service definition must have at least one charge type and may have up to three (as potentially a *rate*, a *fixed rate* and either of *cogs* or *fixed cogs* may be used)

rate_col

The rate_col parameter is used to determine the column in the usage data which contains the unit rates for the service definitions created by the services statement.

As each service definition is created, an initial rate revision is also created which contains the column named by the rate_col parameter. When a report is run, for each day in the reporting range the unit rate for that day will be determined by whatever value is in the column named by the rate_col parameter in the usage data.

This means that only a single rate revision is required, even if the actual value in the rate_col column is different from day to day.

set_rate_using

The set_rate_using parameter is also used to determine the unit rate for each service. This differs from the rate_col parameter in that the values in the column named by set_rate_using are consulted when the service is created, and the literal values in that column are used to populate the initial rate revision.

This means that the unit cost is hard-coded into the rate revision and will apply indefinitely, or until such time as a new rate revision takes effect (see effective_date for more details)

Either of rate_col or set_rate_using (but not both) may be used in a single services statement

fixed_price_col

The fixed_price_col parameter is used to determine the column in the usage data which contains the fixed price associated with the service definitions created by the services statement.

As each service definition is created, an initial rate revision is also created which contains the column named by the fixed_price_col parameter. When a report is run, for each day in the reporting range the fixed price for that day will be determined by whatever value is in the column named by the fixed_price_col parameter in the usage data.

If a monthly service has different fixed prices for different days in the month, then whichever results in the highest charge will be used.

This means that only a single rate revision is required, even if the actual value in the fixed_price_col column is different from day to day.

set_fixed_price_using

The set_fixed_price_using parameter is also used to determine the fixed price for each service. This differs from the fixed_price_col parameter in that the values in the column named by set_fixed_price_using are consulted when the service is created, and the literal values in that column are used to populate the initial rate revision.

This means that the fixed price is hard-coded into the rate revision and will apply indefinitely, or until such time as a new rate revision takes effect (see effective_date for more details)

Either of fixed_price_col or set_fixed_price_using (but not both) may be used in a single services statement

cogs_col

The cogs_col parameter is used to determine the column in the usage data which contains the COGS rate associated with the service definitions created by the services statement.

As each service definition is created, an initial rate revision is also created which contains the column named by the cogs_col parameter. When a report is run, for each day in the reporting range the COGS rate for that day will be determined by whatever value is in the column named by the cogs_col parameter in the usage data.

If a monthly service has different COGS rates for different days in the month, then whichever results in the highest charge will be used.

This means that only a single rate revision is required, even if the actual value in the cogs_col column is different from day to day.

set_cogs_using

The set_cogs_using parameter is also used to determine the COGS rate for each service. This differs from the cogs_col parameter in that the values in the column named by set_cogs_using are consulted when the service is created, and the literal values in that column are used to populate the initial rate revision.

This means that the COGS rate is hard-coded into the rate revision and will apply indefinitely, or until such time as a new rate revision takes effect (see effective_date for more details)

Either of cogs_col or set_cogs_using (but not both) may be used in a single services statement

fixed_cogs_col

The fixed_cogs_col parameter is used to determine the column in the usage data which contains the fixed COGS price associated with the service definitions created by the services statement.

As each service definition is created, an initial rate revision is also created which contains the column named by the fixed_cogs_col parameter. When a report is run, for each day in the reporting range the fixed COGS price for that day will be determined by whatever value is in the column named by the fixed_cogs_col parameter in the usage data.

If a monthly service has different fixed COGS prices for different days in the month, then whichever results in the highest charge will be used.

This means that only a single rate revision is required, even if the actual value in the fixed_cogs_col column is different from day to day.

set_fixed_cogs_using

The set_fixed_cogs_using parameter is also used to determine the fixed COGS price for each service. This differs from the fixed_cogs_col parameter in that the values in the column named by set_fixed_cogs_using are consulted when the service is created, and the literal values in that column are used to populate the initial rate revision.

This means that the fixed COGS price is hard-coded into the rate revision and will apply indefinitely, or until such time as a new rate revision takes effect (see effective_date for more details)

Either of fixed_cogs_col or set_fixed_cogs_using (but not both) may be used in a single services statement

set_min_commit_using

The set_min_commit_using parameter is used to set the minimum commit value in the initial rate revision for each service.

The values in the column identified by set_min_commit_using are extracted from the usage data and used as numeric literals in the revision.

effective_date

When creating the initial rate revision for a service, the value specified by the effective_date parameter is interpreted as a yyyyMMdd value to determine the date from which the revision should be applied.

If the effective_date parameter is omitted then the current data date will be used by default.

When using effective_date, the value will be used to set the initial rate revision date for all the service definitions created by the services statement. If different services require different effective dates then the effective_date_col parameter may be used to determine the effective date for each service from a column in the usage data.

effective_date_col

If there is a column in the usage data containing yyyyMMdd values representing the desired effective date for the initial revision of each service, The effective_date_col parameter may be used to extract the values from this column and set the effective date for each service accordingly.

Either of effective_date or effective_date_col may be specified in a single services statement, but not both

Examples

services {
usages_col = ServiceName
effective_date = 20180101
set_cogs_using = cogs_prices
description_col = service_description
unit_label_col = units_description
set_min_commit_using = minimum_commit
category_col = service_group
interval_col = charging_interval
model_col = proration
set_rate_using = rate
set_fixed_price_using = fixed_prices
}